The Pharma Nord research database contains 137 documents to which the keyword “Bio-Quinone” has been assigned.

In some of the documents, a variation of the name Bio-Quinone has been used: Myoqinon or Myoquinone or Bio-Qinone. The Q10 formulation is the same in all of the variously named preparations.

Some of these 137 documents are reports of animal studies using Bio-Quinone. Other documents are review articles or theoretical articles relating to the use of Bio-Quinone.

The remaining documents are reports of human studies of the safety and absorption and efficacy of Bio-Quinone. Some of the studies have been reported more than once, for example, first in a conference poster or paper and then, later, in a journal article. On this page, each unique human study is summarized just once, regardless of how many times it has been reported.

In the pages that follow, there are summaries of 75 unique human studies involving the use of Bio-Quinone.

Of these 75 studies, 25 are gold standard studies that are randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies enrolling 30 or more subjects.

The Bio-Quinone Q10 study summaries that follow are arranged chronologically in descending order. Starting on page 81, following the study summaries, there is a subject index to the summaries.

 

Important Bio-Quinone Studies


Antioxidant protection … Singh 2005, Lankin, 2003, Aejmelaeus 1997, Kaikkonen 1997, Alho, 1996, Salonen, 1996, Alleva 1995, Weber, 1994

Bioavailability … Folkers 1994, Weis 1994

Cardiovascular mortality … Alehagen 2013

Diabetes Type I … Brauner 2014, Henriksen 1999

Diabetes Type II … Eriksson 1999

Down Syndrome … Tiano 2012

Exercise … Ylikoski 1997

Fibromyalgia … Cordero 2014

Friedreich’s ataxis … Cooper 2008, Hart 2005

Gulf War Illness … Golomb 2014

Heart failure … Mortensen 2014, Munkholm 1999, Kuklinski 1994

Periodontal disease … Nylander 1996

Sickle cell disease … Thakur 2013

Sperm motility … Balercia 2009

Statin-induced myopathy … Fedacko 2013

Warfarin dosage … Engelsen 2002

Researcher Guillermo Lopez-Lluch
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Pablo de Olavide University in Sevilla, Spain,
   
PUBLICATION CITATION López-Lluch, G., Del Pozo-Cruz, J., Sánchez-Cuesta, A., Cortés-Rodríguez, A. B., & Navas, P. (2019). Bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10 supplements depends on carrier lipids and solubilization. Nutrition, 57, 133–140.
TYPE OF STUDY Double-blind, cross-over comparative bio-availability study
SAMPLE SIZE 14 young, healthy Spanish men (10) and women (4) citizens aged 18 to 33
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg single dosage compared with 100 mg single dosage of five other ubiquinone CoQ10 formulations and one ubiquinol formulation
RESULTS  

The two best absorbed CoQ10 formulations the soft-gel capsules containing Bio-Quinone Q10 ubiquinone (the oxidized form of CoQ10) formulation and the ubiquinol (the reduced form of CoQ10) formulation. The Bio-Quinone Q10 formulation was absorbed significantly better than the ubiquinol formulation and the other five ubiquinone formulations.

 

 

Researcher Anne Louise Mortensen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Bio-chemist
PUBLICATION CITATION Mortensen, A. L., Rosenfeldt, F. & Filipiak, K. J. (2019). Effect of Coenzyme Q10 in the Europeans with chronic heart failure: a sub-analysis of the Q-Symbio randomized double-blind trial.  Cardiology Journal, published online 20 Feb 2019, doi: 10.5603/CJ.a2019.0022, retrieved from https://journals/viamedica.pl/cardiology_journal/article/view/CJ.a2019.0022
TYPE OF STUDY Two-year multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (sub-analysis of the original 2014 Q-Symbio study)
SAMPLE SIZE 231 European patients out of the 420 heart failure patients
DOSAGE 3 times Bio-Quinone 100 mg per day, with meals (Bio-Quinone called Myoqinon)
RESULTS  

Bio-chemist Dr. Anne Louise Mortensen separated out the data for the 231 European heart failure patients who participated in the Q-Symbio study. She compared the data from the more homogeneous European sub-population of the Q-Symbio study with the data from the total Q-Symbio study population, which included Asian and Australian study participants as well.
The serum Coenzyme Q10 concentrations of the European heart failure patients averaged 3.42 micrograms per milliliter (mcg/ml) at 3 months and 3.55 mcg/ml at 2 years of the study. In contrast, the corresponding serum Coenzyme Q10 levels in the total Q-Symbio study group were 3.01 mcg/ml at 3 months and 2.2 mcg/ml at 2 years.
Coenzyme Q10 treatment lowered the risk of death from all-causes, the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases, and the risk of hospitalization to a greater extent in the European heart failure patients. The risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event was nearly two times lower and the risk of hospitalization was seven times lower in the European sub-population than in the total Q-Symbio population.
 

 

 

Researcher Svend Aage Mortensen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Mortensen, S. A., Rosenfeldt, F., Kumar, A., Dolliner, P., Filipiak, K. J., Pella, D., & Littarru, G. P. (2014). The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial. JACC. Heart Failure, 2(6), 641-649.
TYPE OF STUDY Two-year multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 420 heart failure patients
DOSAGE 3 times Bio-Quinone 100 mg per day, with meals (Bio-Quinone called Myoquinon)
RESULTS  

Adjuvant treatment with Myoqinon (Bio-Quinone) resulted in these statistically significant outcomes as compared with placebo treatment.

•    A 43% decrease in cardiovascular deaths
•    A 43% relative reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events
•    A 42% reduced risk of death from all causes
•    A 43% reduction in the number of unplanned hospitalizations
•    A 22% increase in patients who improved their NYHA class

There were fewer side effects in the Q10 group.
 

 

 

Researcher Urban Alehagen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.
PUBLICATION CITATION Alehagen, U., Johansson, P., Björnstedt, M., Rosén, A., & Dahlström, U. (2013). Cardiovascular mortality and N-terminal-proBNP reduced after combined selenium and coenzyme Q10 supplementation: a 5-year prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens. International Journal of Cardiology, 167(5), 1860-1866.
TYPE OF STUDY Four-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 443 healthy elderly Swedish citizens aged 70 to 88
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg twice a day
Seleno-Precise 200 micrograms once a day
RESULTS  

Supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and selenium resulted in these statistically significant outcomes:

•    A reduction in cardiovascular deaths
•    A reduction in levels of NT-proBNP (a biological marker for heart disease)
•    Better cardiac function scores on echocardiograms

To date, there have been additional 13 publications detailing the results of secondary analyses of the data generated by Professor Alehagen's KiSel-10 clinical trial.  These 12 publications are summarized on the pages 7 – 19.


Johansson, P., Dahlström, Ö., Dahlström, U., & Alehagen, U. (2013). Effect of selenium and Q10 on the cardiac biomarker NT-proBNP. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ, 47(5), 281-288

In patients with chronic heart failure, the heart secretes a substance that contains two proteins: B-type natriuretic peptide (called BNP) and N-terminal-pro-BNP (called NT-pro-BNP).  Rising levels of these two proteins in the blood are indicative of elevated cardiac wall tension and, therefore, of worsening heart failure. Consequently, a relatively simple and inexpensive blood test can be used to detect the levels of these normally reliable bio-markers of chronic heart failure.
In the KiSel-10 study, the Swedish researchers divided the elderly Swedish study participants into five quintiles.  Quintile 1 was the quintile with the lowest level of cardiac wall stress, quintiles 2 through 4 were the quintiles with moderate levels of cardiac wall stress, and quintile 5 was the quintile with the highest level of cardiac wall stress. The researchers found that, in quintiles 2 – 4, in the middle 60% of the participants in the study, the combination Coenzyme Q10 and selenium treatment significantly slowed down the increase in cardiac wall tension and decreased the cardiovascular mortality rates.
In other words, the effectiveness of the combined Coenzyme Q10 and selenium treatment varied according to how severe the cardiac wall tension, measured by the NT-pro-BNP levels, was.  Long-term combination supplementation was most effective at slowing the increase of NT-pro-BNP and at decreasing cardiovascular mortality in those elderly study participants who were in early to middle stages of developing cardiac dysfunction.
The Swedish researchers speculated that, in cases of severe cardiac dysfunction, there might be so many damaged heart muscle cells that the heart muscle could not respond adequately to the Coenzyme Q10 and selenium treatment. The researchers also wrote that the “major cardiovascular effect of Coenzyme Q10 is speculated to be due to its antioxidant properties.”  

Johansson, P., Dahlström, Ö., Dahlström, U., & Alehagen, U. (2015). Improved health-related quality of life, and more days out of hospital with supplementation with selenium and coenzyme q10 combined. Results from a double blind, placebo-controlled prospective study. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 19(9), 870-877.

Continuing to mine the data from the KiSel-10 study, the Swedish researchers investigated the effect of 48 months of supplementation with Q10 and selenium on non-institutionalized elderly citizens with respect to the number of days out of hospital and health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL).  They examined the data from all hospital admissions during the study, and they examined the data from a Quality of Life Short Form-36 (SF-36), from the Cardiac Health Profile (CHP), and from a one-item overall-quality-of-life survey.
After the 48 months of supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and selenium, the researchers continued to follow the study participants.  In the total group, the study participants who took selenium and Q10 recorded 1454 hospital-free days, and the study participants who took the placebo preparations recorded 1403 days out of the hospital.  The difference of 51 days was not statistically significant, but it might well have been clinically and personally significant.
At a point after the conclusion of the KiSel-10 supplementation period, in an effort to ensure that they were comparing participants with very similar characteristics, the investigators matched the records of 110 participants (55 active treatment and 55 placebo) and examined the hospital stay data.  In the matched group, the study participants who had gotten the active treatment had recorded a mean number of 1779 days out of hospital.  In the same period, the study participants in the placebo group, by comparison, had recorded 1533 days out of the hospital.  The difference of an extra 246 days out of the hospital (13% fewer days in the hospital) was statistically significant.
The study participants who received the active substances selenium and Q10 recorded significantly lower declines, with increasing age, in the following health-related quality-of-life areas: physical role performance, vitality, physical component score, overall quality of life, somatic dimension (functioning of the body), conative dimension (willingness to change, willingness to take action), and global function. The researchers concluded that the active treatment group had significantly more days out of the hospital and a slower deterioration of health-related quality of life.


Alehagen, U., Lindahl, T. L., Aaseth, J., Svensson, E., & Johansson, P. (2015). Levels of sP-selectin and hs-CRP Decrease with dietary intervention with selenium and Coenzyme Q10 combined: A Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Plos ONE, 10(9), 1-16.

Having established that a four-year-long daily supplementation with a combination of 200 mg of ubiquinone Q10 and 200 mcg of organic selenium yeast significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular death in elderly Swedish citizens (average age: 78 years), Professor Alehagen and his team of researchers undertook a secondary analysis of the data from the KiSel-10 clinical trial.  
Specifically, they looked at data from bio-markers of inflammation in the body.  First, they looked at the data recording C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. CRP tests are blood tests that measure levels of systemic inflammation and, by extension, provide information about the extent of cardiovascular risk.
In the KiSel-10 study, the CRP levels for the placebo group were, on average, 4.8 nanograms/milliliter at the start of the study and 5.1 ng/mL at the end of the study. The corresponding CRP levels for active treatment selenium and Q10 group were 4.1 ng/mL at the start of the study and 2.1 ng/mL at the end of the study.
Secondly, the researchers looked at the levels of soluble Platelet-selectin (SP-selectin) in the active treatment and placebo groups.  SP-selectin is known to be a bio-marker for atherosclerosis (the build-up of plaque on the inside walls of blood vessels).  In the placebo group, the study start mean level was 56.6 milligrams/milliliter, and the study end mean level was 72.3 mg/mL, with the rise possibly indicating a worsening of the athero-thrombotic process with increasing age.  (Atherothrombosis is the formation of blood clots along the walls of the arteries) The rise in SP-selectin levels in the selenium and Q10 treatment group was significantly smaller: from a study start mean level of 55.9 mg/mL to a study end mean level of 58.0 mg/mL.
Thus, the analysis of the two bio-markers for inflammation and atherosclerosis showed significantly better outcomes in the treatment group that received the combination selenium and Coenzyme Q10 supplements than in the placebo group. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular death was significantly reduced in the active treatment group, as compared with the placebo group.  In the active treatment group, there were reduced cardiovascular death rates in participants at both high and low levels of CRP and SP-selectin.  
The researchers hypothesize that the mechanism for the beneficial health effect demonstrated in the KiSel-10 study is the anti-oxidative effect of the selenium and the Coenzyme Q10 working synergistically.  
Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., & Johansson, P. (2015). Less increase of copeptin and MR-proADM due to intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined: Results from a 4-year prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens. Biofactors (Oxford, England), 41(6), 443-452.

The KiSel-10 researchers knew that selenium and Coenzyme Q10 are involved in the body’s antioxidative defense mechanisms.  Therefore, they evaluated the effect of selenium and Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on copeptin and adrenomedullin levels in the blood as biomarkers of oxidative stress.
In clinical testing, copeptin is a peptide that is regarded as a useful substitute marker for the presence of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin. Arginine vasopressin levels are known to have good prognostic value for outcomes in patients at risk of heart failure, but arginine vasopressin is difficult to measure because of the molecules’ small size and short half-life. Copeptin, on the other hand, can be easily tested for, and it is regarded as a reliable surrogate bio-marker for increased levels of arginine vasopressin.
Adrenomedullin is a peptide hormone that, in animal studies, has been shown to protect against angiotensin II-caused cardiovascular damage through the reduction of the level of oxidative stress.  It is found in sufficient concentrations in the blood to make measurement possible.
The researchers’ evaluations of the blood samples taken at baseline and after 18 months and 48 months of the KiSel-10 study showed that the active treatment group had significantly less increase in copeptin levels. Remember: higher levels of copeptin are associated with higher risk of heart failure. Moreover, the combination SelenoPrecise and Bio-Quinone treatment protected against cardiovascular deaths in both the patients who entered the study with high copeptin levels and the patients who entered the study with low copeptin levels.
 Similarly, the data showed that there had been significantly less increase in adrenomedullin levels in the active treatment group as compared to the placebo group. Again, the data showed that there were significantly fewer cardiovascular deaths in the selenium and Coenzyme Q10 supplementation group, both among the patients with above median levels and the patients with below median levels.
In their 10-year follow-up study of the data, the researchers noted the same cardioprotective effects of the selenium and Coenzyme Q10 supplementation that they had noted at the 4-year evaluation point.


Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., & Johansson, P. (2015). Reduced Cardiovascular Mortality 10 Years after Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 for Four Years: Follow-Up Results of a Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial in Elderly Citizens. Plos One, 10(12), e0141641.

Having established that four years of supplementation with SelenoPrecise and Bio-Quinone Q10 was positively associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk and with improved cardiac function, the KiSel-10 researchers followed up by analyzing the persistence of the effect of supplementation on cardiovascular mortality 10 years after the initiation of the active treatment.
In particular, they looked to see if cardiovascular mortality varied according to gender, diabetes, development of ischemic heart disease, or New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. The researchers used death certificates and autopsy reports to collect data on mortality.
The significantly lower cardiovascular mortality rates in the selenium and Coenzyme Q10 treatment group persisted throughout the 10-year period from the start of the intervention.  There were positive risk reductions, with the active treatment, in both genders, in different NYHA functional classes, and in participants who developed ischemic heart disease (reduced blood flow and reduced oxygen to the heart).
In other words, the protection against heart disease was not limited to the four years in which the KiSel-10 study participants were receiving the supplements.  The protection continued through the follow-up period.
Why and how the cardioprotective effect persisted as long as it did remains to be explained, but the persistent effect was there to be seen in the data.  The researchers were able to track each of the 443 elderly participants. No participant disappeared from the scrutiny of the investigators.


Alehagen, U., & Aaseth, J. (2015). Selenium and coenzyme Q10 interrelationship in cardiovascular diseases--A clinician's point of view. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 31157-162.

In this article, Professor Alehagen and Dr. Aaseth undertake a brief review of what they have learned, as clinicians, from the results of the KiSel-10 study and from their review of the literature of Coenzyme Q10 and selenium.
1. There is an important interrelationship between Coenzyme Q10 and selenium. The authors point out that the selenium deficiencies can inhibit the cells from getting optimal concentrations of Coenzyme Q10 and, also, that adequate concentrations of Q10 must be available for the cells to benefit from optimal selenium function.
2. The literature on the use of selenium and Coenzyme Q10 in heart disease extends back to Kuklinski (1994, lower mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarctions), Witte (2005, improved cardiac left ventricular function and better quality of life), and Leong (2010, less cardiac damage and shorter hospital stays following coronary artery bypass surgery).
3. The literature shows unequivocally that statin treatment leads to decreases in serum Q10 levels and that statin treatment leads to the inhibition of the synthesis of some important selenoproteins. Moreover, the risk of developing heart disease is positively associated with low serum Q10 levels and low serum selenium levels.
4. The clinical results from the KiSel-10 intervention study using both selenium and coenzyme Q10 in an elderly population were statistically significant: a reduction in cardiovascular mortality, an improved cardiac function shown in echocardiograms, and slower increases in heart muscle wall tension shown in lower concentrations of the biomarker NT-proBNP.
5. Coenzyme Q10 (in its reduced form) is an important antioxidant, and selenium is an essential component of some important antioxidant enzymes.  Antioxidant protection is especially important in the prevention of heart disease because the mitochondrial DNA in the heart muscle cells are especially susceptible to damage caused by oxidative stress (oxidative stress = an imbalance between the body’s production of free radicals and the body’s ability to neutralize said free radicals).
6. There is an interrelationship between selenium and Coenzyme Q10 that can be exploited for therapeutic advantage if both substances are used together as a preventive measure in middle-aged and elderly persons at risk for developing heart disease and as an adjunctive treatment of patients diagnosed with heart failure.
Alehagen, U., Johansson, P., Björnstedt, M., Rosén, A., Post, C., & Aaseth, J. (2016). Relatively high mortality risk in elderly Swedish subjects with low selenium status. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(1), 91-96. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.92

The Linköping University researchers knew that the daily dietary intake of selenium is generally quite low in Sweden.  They measured and evaluated the serum selenium levels of 668 elderly citizens of the rural municipality of Kinda.  They established that the serum selenium concentrations of the study participants in this sample was, on average, 67.1 micrograms per liter.  This is a level considerably below the physiological saturation level required for the activation of important selenoproteins such selenoprotein P and the glutathione peroxidases.

To show how low the serum selenium concentrations of the elderly Swedish population was, we can compare with the plasma selenium concentrations of 119 healthy British men and women aged 50 – 64 years [Hurst 2010].  The British study participants had a mean plasma selenium level of 95.7 micrograms per liter with a standard deviation of 11.5 micrograms per liter.  Roughly 68 percent of the study participants had plasma selenium concentrations that ranged between 84.2 and 107.2 micrograms per liter.  Roughly 95 percent of the study participants had plasma selenium concentrations that ranged between 72.7 and 118.7 micrograms per liter.  That is to say, higher than the Swedish average to 67.1 micrograms of selenium per liter of serum.

The researchers made appropriate adjustments to rule out the effect of such confounding variables as male gender, smoking, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and impaired heart function.  They found that individuals in the lowest quartile of serum selenium concentrations were at a 43% greater risk of death from all causes and at a 56% greater risk of death from heart disease.  The researchers concluded that moderate daily supplementation with selenium might improve the overall health of the Swedish population.
Alehagen, U., Alexander, J., & Aaseth, J. (2016). Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 reduces cardiovascular mortality in elderly with low selenium status. a secondary analysis of a randomised clinical trial. Plos One, 11(7), e0157541. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157541

The KiSel-10 researchers did a secondary analysis of the available study data to determine whether the positive effects of daily supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast for four years are directly associated with the baseline serum selenium levels of study participants.

They reported two important findings from their secondary analysis:
 
1) The risk of death from heart disease was higher among study participants with baseline serum selenium concentrations lower than 65 micrograms per liter as compared with study participants whose baseline serum selenium concentrations were above 85 micrograms per liter.

2) The daily supplementation with a combination of Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast was shown to provide protection against death from heart disease in the study participants with baseline serum selenium levels below 85 micrograms per liter.

Alehagen, U., Johansson, P., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., & Wågsäter, D. (2017). Significant changes in circulating microRNA by dietary supplementation of selenium and Coenzyme Q10 in healthy elderly males. A subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens. Plos One, 12(4), e0174880. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0174880

The KiSel-10 researchers focused in on the data from 50 study participants, all males, 25 of whom had been in the active treatment group and 25 of whom had been in the placebo group.  They isolated RNA from the plasma of these 50 study participants.

Then they analyzed the pre-treatment and post-treatment levels of the expression of numerous microRNAs.  At baseline, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of microRNA expression levels.  After four years of treatment with either Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast or placebo, however, the data showed significant differences between the two groups in as many as 70 different microRNAs.  (MicroRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of genes that code for proteins.  These microRNAs can inhibit the expression of genes and thus influence the formation of proteins.  MicroRNAs can play a significant role in the development of heart disease and diabetes.)

The researchers concluded that the significant differences between the Coenzyme Q10/high-selenium yeast treatment group and the placebo group in the expression of microRNAs might be one of the biological mechanisms by which the supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast reduced significantly the risk of death from heart disease and reduced the extent of inflammation in the elderly Swedish citizens.  


Alehagen, U., Johansson, P., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., & Brismar, K. (2017). Increase in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 after supplementation with selenium and Coenzyme Q10. A prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens. Plos One, 12(6), e0178614. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178614.

The KiSel-10 study data show conclusively that daily Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast supplements provide protection against death from heart disease and from age-related declines in heart function.  The researchers trace these beneficial effects in part to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions of the two substances.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (abbreviated IGF-1) has many functions in the body such as cell growth and metabolism as well as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.  IGF-1 concentrations tend to decrease with increasing age and during periods of inflammation.

Professor Alehagen and the KiSel-10 researchers examined the effects of four years of daily supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast on concentrations of IGF-1 and its binding protein IGFBP-1 in the elderly Swedish study participants.  They found that the individuals in the group taking Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast supplements had significantly increased IGF-1 and IGF-1 SD scores at the end of the study period while individuals in the placebo group had reduced concentrations.

The researchers suggested that the positive effect of Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast supplementation on IGF-1 concentrations might be one of the biological mechanisms explaining the positive clinical effects the risk of death from heart disease and on heart function.

Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., Svensson, E., Johansson, P., & Larsson, A. (2017). Less fibrosis in elderly subjects supplemented with selenium and coenzyme Q10-A mechanism behind reduced cardiovascular mortality? Biofactors (Oxford, England), doi:10.1002/biof.1404

Professor Alehagen and his research colleagues investigated the effect of supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium yeast on eight bio-markers of fibrogenic activity in healthy elderly Swedish citizens, aged 70 – 88 years.  

Note: Cardiac fibrosis is the development of excess fibrous tissue depositions in the heart muscle or heart valves.  Cardiac fibrosis can increase the risk of heart failure.

The researchers analyzed the blood concentrations of the various bio-markers at the six-month mark and the 42-month mark in the study.  The data showed that there were significantly reduced blood concentrations of seven of the eight fibrosis bio-markers in the active Coenzyme Q10 and selenium group after 42 weeks of supplementation as compared with the placebo group.  

The reduced fibrogenic activity seems to be a consequence of the daily intervention with Coenzyme Q10 and high-selenium supplements.  There appears to be an association between the supplementation and the reduction in the bio-markers of fibrosis and the statistically significant reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease among the elderly study participants.


Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., & Johansson, P. (2018). Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous 10-year follow-up results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in elderly. Plos One, 13(4), e0193120. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193120

Even as long as 12 years after the supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and high selenium yeast, the elderly Swedish citizens who had gotten the active treatment rather than the placebo treatment in the KiSel-10 study showed significantly lower risk of death from heart disease.

Moreover, the reduced risk in the active treatment group was seen in such subgroups of patients as those with diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and impaired functional capacity.  

Professor Alehagen and his team of researchers have not determined all of the mechanisms of the protective action of the Coenzyme Q10 and selenium supplements, but they point to the documented effects of the supplement combination on heart function, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammation.

Alehagen, U., Alexander, J., Aaseth, J. & Larsson, A. (2019).  Decrease in inflammatory biomarker concentration by intervention with selenium and Coenzyme Q10: a sub-analysis of osteopontin, osteoprotergerin, TNFr1, TNFr2, and TWEAK. Journal of Inflammation, 16(5), 1-9.

Professor Alehagen and his colleagues sought to explain the mechanism by which daily combined supplementation for four years with 200 micrograms of an organic high-selenium yeast preparation (SelenoPrecise®) and 200 milligrams of Coenzyme Q10 (Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg twice daily) significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and improved heart function in senior citizens aged 70-88 years at baseline.

One plausible explanation is that the combined supplementation is associated with a significant reduction in numerous bio-markers of inflammation.  Inflammation is a prominent feature in the pathogenesis of many diseases.

First, in 2015, Professor Alehagen was able to demonstrate that the combined supplementation was singificantly associated with positive changes in the two bio-markers for inflammation C-reactive protein and sP-selectin, indicating a mechanism for reduced inflammation and atherosclerosis. Now, in this 2019 publication, Professor Alehagen reports significant reductions in four of five additional plasma bio-markers for inflammation: osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, sTNF receptor 1, and sTNF receptor 2.  The only plasma bio-marker that did not show a significant reduction associated with the selenium yeast and Coenzyme Q10 supplementation was TWEAK (the tumor  necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis).

Conclusion: The senior citizens enrolled in the KiSel-10 study had sub-optimal intakes of selenium and sub-optimal bio-synthesis of Coenzyme Q10.  Consequently, the combined supplementation improved their defenses against inflammation and oxidative stress and resulted in improved health-related quality of life, improved heart function, and reduced cardiovascular mortality.
 

 

 

Researcher Beatrice Golomb
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
PUBLICATION CITATION Golomb, B. A., Allison, M., Koperski, S., Koslik, H. J., Devaraj, S., & Ritchie, J. B. (2014). Coenzyme Q10 benefits symptoms in Gulf War veterans: results of a randomized double-blind study. Neural Computation, 26(11), 2594-2651.
TYPE OF STUDY 3.5 ± 0.5 month-long randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 46 Gulf War veterans meeting Kansas and Centers for Disease Control criteria for Gulf War illness
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg per day or 300 mg per day
RESULTS  

Supplementation with 100 mg and 300 mg of Q10 per day yielded improvement in physical function and symptoms in veterans with Gulf War illness. Among males (85% of enrollees), there were statistically significant benefits from 100 mg/day of Bio-Quinone Q10 on General Self-Rated Health and on physical function scores

In 19 of 20 symptoms (sleep problems being the exception), Q10 supplementation was associated with signs of improvement, with several of the symptoms showing statistically significant improvement.
 

 

 

Researcher Hanna Brauner, Annelie Brauner
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institut, Stockholm, Sweden
PUBLICATION CITATION Brauner, H., Lüthje, P., Grünler, J., Ekberg, N. R., Dallner, G., Brismar, K., & Brauner, A. (2014). Markers of innate immune activity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the effect of the anti-oxidant coenzyme Q10 on inflammatory activity. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 177(2), 478-482
TYPE OF STUDY Placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 58 diabetes patients, 27 with Type 1 Diabetes mellitus and 31 with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, and also 19 healthy controls
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg twice daily for 12 weeks
RESULTS  

The researchers’ data suggest that Q10 supplementation can boost the immune system in Type 1 diabetics. Supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 reduces diabetes-associated inflammatory processes. Furthermore, Q10 supplementation may help prevent late complications.

The researchers observed signs of reduced inflammation, increased cytokine production capacity, improved NK cell activity, and reduced hBD2 expression in Type 1 diabetics receiving daily Q10 supplements. (hBD2 expression is indicative of pro-inflammatory activity)
 

 

 

Researcher Mario D. Cordero
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
PUBLICATION CITATION Cordero, M. D., Alcocer-Gómez, E., Culic, O., Carrión, A. M., de Miguel, M., Díaz-Parrado, E., & Sánchez-Alcazar, J. A. (2014). NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in fibromyalgia: the effect of coenzyme Q10. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 20(8), 1169-1180.
TYPE OF STUDY 40-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 20 adult fibromyalgia patients
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 300 mg/day (100 mg three times a day)
RESULTS  

The researchers investigated the association between Coenzyme Q10 deficiency in fibromyalgia patients and reduced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β and IL-18 serum levels.  

Their results show an important role for Q10 in the control of inflammasome (inflammasome = a multi-protein complex responsible for activation of inflammatory processes).  Coenzyme Q10 supplementation at the level of 300 mg/day represents a new therapeutic intervention for fibromyalgia.
 

 

 

Researcher Elisabet Alcocer-Gomez
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Oral Medicine Department, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
PUBLICATION CITATION Alcocer-Gómez, E., Culic, O., Navarro-Pando, J. M., Sánchez-Alcázar, J. A., & Bullón, P. (2017). Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Psychopathological Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Patients. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 23(2), 188–189. https://doi-org.db14.linccweb.org/10.1111/cns.12668
TYPE OF STUDY 40-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 20 adult fibromyalgia patients
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 300 mg/day (100 mg three times a day)
RESULTS  
CoQ10 treatment induced important molecular and clinical improvements:
1. Improved mitochondrial bio-genesis
2. Improved antioxidants gene expression
3. Reduction in inflammation
4. Improvement in clinical symptoms
5. Improvement in sleep quality
6. Reductions in anxiety, depression, and hostility
 
 

 

Researcher Jan Fedacko
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Kosice, Slovakia
PUBLICATION CITATION Fedacko, J., Pella, D., Fedackova, P., Hänninen, O., Tuomainen, P., Jarcuska, P., & ... Littarru, G. P. (2013). Coenzyme Q10 and selenium in statin-associated myopathy treatment. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 91(2), 165-170.
TYPE OF STUDY Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 60 patients reporting statin-associated myopathy (muscle pain, muscle weakness, tiredness, or muscle cramps)
DOSAGE Group 1.  Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg + 200 ug of selenium daily
Group 2. Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg + a selenium placebo daily
Group 3. 200 ug of selenium + Q10 placebo daily
Group 4. Q10 placebo + selenium placebo
RESULTS  

In patients treated with Bio-Quinone Q10, the researchers observed a decrease in the symptoms of statin-associated myopathy, both in the numbers of the symptoms and in the intensity of the symptoms. Compared with placebo, the Q10 supplementation produced a reduction of muscle pain and muscle weakness and fatigue.
The addition of a selenium supplement to the Q10 supplement did not result in statistically significant changes. However, the researchers speculated that there may well be a connection between a lack of selenium in the diet and the Q10 deficiency that the Q10 supplementation addresses.
The results showed that supplementation of statin-treated patients with Q10 and selenium diminished the symptoms of myopathy and fatigue, which are associated with the taking of statin medications.
 

 

 

 
Researcher Martin Bogsrud
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Lorem Ipsum
PUBLICATION CITATION Bogsrud, M. P., Langslet, G., Ose, L., Arnesen, K., Sm Stuen, M. C., Malt, U. F., & ... Retterstøl, K. (2013). No effect of combined coenzyme Q10 and selenium supplementation on atorvastatin-induced myopathy. Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, 47(2), 80-87.
TYPE OF STUDY 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
SAMPLE SIZE 43 eligible patients reporting statin-associated myopathy (muscle pain, weakness)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 (Myoquinon) 400 mg/day and SelenoPrecise 200 micrograms/day
RESULTS  

The administration of the statin medication atorvastatin reduced significantly the patients’ blood Coenzyme Q10 levels in both groups. Supplementation with Myoquinon then significantly increased CoQ10 levels in the active treatment group.
Atorvastatin did not decrease blood selenium levels in either group. Supplementation with SelenoPrecise increased blood selenium levels in the active treatment group.
The results from symptom questionnaire scores and muscle function tests did not show significant differences between the treatment group and the placebo group with respect to statin-induced muscle pain and weakness. However, four patients in the placebo group did stop the statin treatment because of unbearable pain from the statin medication. No patients in the treatment group stopped the statin treatment. This difference was not statistically significant but might be clinically significant.
Moreover, atorvastatin’s effect in decreasing CoQ10 concentrations may have long-term implications for heart muscle function. Patients on statin medications need Coenzyme Q10 supplements to protect the heart muscle cells.
 

 

 

Researcher Amar Singh Thakur
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Jagdalpur, India
PUBLICATION CITATION Thakur, A. S., Littarru, G. P., Moesgaard, S., Dan Sindberg, C., Khan, Y., & Singh, C. M. (2013). Hematological Parameters and RBC TBARS Level of Q10 Supplemented Tribal Sickle Cell Patients: A Hospital Based Study. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB, 28(2), 185-188
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month placebo-controlled trial
SAMPLE SIZE 34 patients aged 10 to 55 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg daily
RESULTS  

With Q10 supplementation, changes in hematological parameters were observed:
•    Red Blood Cell count: an increase of 25.37% in the homozygous group and an increase of 23.24% in the heterozygous group.  
•    Hemoglobin level: an increase of 16.73% in the homozygous group and an increase of 10.7% in the heterozygous group.   
•    White Blood Cell count: an increase of 24.38% % in the homozygous group and an increase of 12.0% in the heterozygous group.  
•    C-reactive protein: a decrease of 7.8 times in the homozygous group and a decrease of 1.54 times in the heterozygous group.  
•    Thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS): a 48% decrease in the homozygous group and a 51% decrease in the heterozygous group as compared to the placebo group. (TBARS = a biological marker of oxidative damage)
These significant increases in hematological parameters and decreases in C-reactive protein and TBARS levels suggest that sickle cell patients need to include Coenzyme Q10 in their diets.
 

 

 

Researcher Luca Tiano
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Institute of Biochemistry, Polytechnic University of the Marche, Ancona, Italy
PUBLICATION CITATION

Tiano, L., Carnevali, P., Padella, L., Santoro, L., Principi, F., Brugè, F., & Littarru, G. P. (2011). Effect of Coenzyme Q10 in mitigating oxidative DNA damage in Down syndrome patients, a double blind randomized controlled trial. Neurobiology of Aging, 32(11), 2103-2105.

Tiano, L., Padella, L., Santoro, L., Carnevali, P., Principi, F., Brugè, F., & ... Littarru, G. P. (2012). Prolonged coenzyme Q10 treatment in Down syndrome patients: effect on DNA oxidation. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(3), 626.e1-8.

TYPE OF STUDY Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
SAMPLE SIZE 30 Down syndrome patients and 30 healthy control patients, aged 4 – 12 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 4 mg/kg per day
RESULTS  

The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of Q10 supplementation in blocking the effect of oxidative damage in Down syndrome patients. The earlier shorter study (6 months) demonstrated a mild protective effect of Q10 on DNA, and the Q10 treatment did seem to attenuate oxidative damage.

In the continuation of the trial, the results indicated an age-specific reduction in the percentage of cells showing the highest amount of oxidation. Overall, the researchers concluded that there is a potential role of Q10 treatment in modulating DNA repair mechanisms.
 

 

 

Researcher Christopher F. Spurney
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION George Washington University, Washington D. C.
PUBLICATION CITATION Spurney, C. F., Rocha, C. T., Henricson, E., Florence, J., Mayhew, J., Gorni, K., & Escolar, D. M. (2011). CINRG pilot trial of coenzyme Q10 in steroid-treated Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Muscle & Nerve, 44(2), 174–178. https://doi-org.db14.linccweb.org/10.1002/mus.22047
TYPE OF STUDY Open label pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 12 children aged 5 – 10 years diagnosed with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and prescribed prednisone corticosteroid treatment
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 90 mg/day initially and increasing by 30 mg/day increments until the children's serum CoQ10 levels reached 2.5 mcg/ml
RESULTS  

Nine of the 12 children achieved an increase in their total Quantitative Muscle Testing scores. Overall, the Bio-Quinone CoQ10 treatment resulted in an 8.5% increase in muscle strength.

The addition of daily CoQ10 treatment to the prednisone therapy resulted in an increase in muscle strength in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.
 

 

 

Researcher Giancarlo Balercia
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION School of Medicine, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy
PUBLICATION CITATION Balercia, G., Buldreghini, E., Vignini, A., Tiano, L., Paggi, F., Amoroso, S., & Littarru, G. (2009). Coenzyme Q10 treatment in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial. Fertility and Sterility, 91(5), 1785-1792.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month-long randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 60 infertile patients (27-39 years of age) with low sperm motility
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg/day, 100 mg twice daily orally for 6 months
RESULTS  

Treatment significantly increased both ubiquinone and ubiquinol levels in seminal plasma and sperm cells.  Treatment also increased spermatozoa motility significantly.  

Q10 supplementation proved to be effective at improving sperm motility in patients diagnosed with idiopathic asthenozoospermia (reduced sperm motility of unknown cause).
 

 

 

Researcher Niels Hertz
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Private practice, Vipperød, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Hertz, N., & Lister, R. E. (2009). Improved survival in patients with end-stage cancer treated with coenzyme Q10 and other antioxidants: a pilot study. The Journal of International Medical Research, 37(6), 1961-1971.
TYPE OF STUDY 9-year open-label pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 41 end-stage cancer patients (with varying diagnoses)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 in varying amounts plus a mixture of other antioxidants (vitamin C, selenium, folic acid, and beta-carotene)
RESULTS  

Over a period of 9 years, the attending physician followed 41 patients with end-stage cancer until death.  The primary cancers were, variously, in the breast, brain, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, colon, prostate, ovaries, and skin. The patients’ median predicted survival time was 12 months (range 3 - 29 months), and the actual median survival, with Q10 and antioxidant supplementation, was 17 months (1 - 120 months), 40% longer than the median predicted survival.

The patients’ mean actual survival was 28.8 months as opposed to 11.9 months for the mean predicted survival. Ten patients (24%) survived for less time than predicted, but 31 (76%) survived for a longer period than predicted.   The Q10 and antioxidant treatments were very well tolerated with few adverse effects.
 

 

 

Researcher J. M. Cooper
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
PUBLICATION CITATION Cooper, J. M., Korlipara, L. P., Hart, P. E., Bradley, J. L., & Schapira, A. V. (2008). Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin E deficiency in Friedreich's ataxia: predictor of efficacy of vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 therapy. European Journal of Neurology: The Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies, 15(12), 1371-1379.
TYPE OF STUDY 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 50 Friedreich’s ataxia patients (Friedreich’s ataxia is a rare inherited disease causing problems in the nervous system damage and in movement)
DOSAGE High-dose group: Bio-Quinone Q10 600 mg/day (2 * 100 mg three times a day) and Vitamin E 2100 IU/day (2 * 525 IU twice a day); Patients under 18 years: Bio-Quinone Q10 9 mg/kg/day and Vitamin E 30 IU/kg/day; Low-dose group: Bio-Quinone Q10 30 mg and placebo tablets
RESULTS  

The Friedreich’s ataxia patients had low serum Q10 and Vitamin E at baseline. Supplementation increased serum levels of Q10 and Vitamin E significantly.
With supplementation, 49% of the patients demonstrated improved International Co-operative Ataxia Ratings Scale (ICARS) scores. These patients showing the most improvement were the patients who had had significantly lower baseline serum Q10 levels.

Both the low-dose and the high-dose Q10 treatments were effective in improving ICARS scores.
 

 

 

Researcher Giovanni Montini
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Pediatric Department, University Hospital, Padua, Italy
PUBLICATION CITATION Montini, G., Malaventura, C., & Salviati, L. (2008). Early Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358(26), 2849-2850.
TYPE OF STUDY Case reports
SAMPLE SIZE 2 very young children, siblings, diagnosed with Coenzyme Q10 deficiency
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 30 mg per kilogram of body weight per day
RESULTS  

The disease condition Primary Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency manifests itself in nephropathy (diminished kidney function) and in encephalomyopathy (disorder of the brain and spinal system).

In patient number one, administration of Q10 resulted in neurological improvement but no change in the status of renal function.  In patient number two, after 20 days of the administration of Q10, the researchers observed progressive recovery of renal function.  They concluded that early administration of Coenzyme Q10 was important for the resolution of renal symptoms and for the prevention of neurologic damage in patient number two.
 

 

 

Researcher Hilde Grindvik Nielsen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Center for Clinical Research, Ullevaal University Hospital, University of Oslo, Norway
PUBLICATION CITATION Nielsen, H. G., Skjønsberg, O. H., & Lyberg, T. (2008). Effect of antioxidant supplementation on leucocyte expression of reactive oxygen species in athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 68(7), 526-533.
TYPE OF STUDY 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study
SAMPLE SIZE 18 well-trained endurance athletes, 14 males with a mean age of 28 years and 4 females with a mean age of 24 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg and Bio-Antioxidant (with 400 mg vitamin C and 180 mg vitamin E), both taken as one dose daily
RESULTS  

The researchers found, after four weeks of antioxidant supplementation, no significant differences in the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the athletes’ leucocytes (white blood cells).
 
The sample size in this study was small.  The intervention period was short.  Possibly there was not enough time for the total plasma antioxidant status to improve.
 

 

 

Researcher Andrejs Skesters
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Riga Stradin University, Riga, Latvia
PUBLICATION CITATION Skesters, A., Zvagule, T., Larmane, L., Rainsford, K., Silova, A., Rusakova, N., Mustafins, P.  (2008). Effects of selenium alone and with antioxidants and ibuprofen mixture in Chernobyl catastrophe clean-up workers at risk of developing cancer. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 24(1), S31.
TYPE OF STUDY 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 134 Chernobyl catastrophe clean-up workers at risk of developing cancer, aged 43–55 years
DOSAGE Three groups:
200 micrograms Selenium yeast alone
200 micrograms Selenium yeast in combination with 100 mg Bio-Quinone Q10, additional antioxidants, and ibuprofen
Placebo
RESULTS  

Increased concentrations of selenium, vitamin E, and total antioxidant status were associated positively with the following outcomes:
•    improved anti-oxidative defense and improved quality of life
•    decreased levels of lipid peroxides and oxidative stress
•    decreased needs for prescribed medicines for joint pain, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, stomach troubles, and depression
•    no incidence of new or abnormal growths compared to seven new cases of neoplasia in the control group
 

 

 

Researcher Katarina Skough
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences,
Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
PUBLICATION CITATION Skough, K., Krossén, C., Heiwe, S., Theorell, H., & Borg, K. (2008). Effects of resistance training in combination with coenzyme Q10 supplementation in patients with post-polio: a pilot study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 40(9), 773-775.
TYPE OF STUDY 12-week parallel randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled, pilot study.
SAMPLE SIZE 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with post-polio syndrome
DOSAGE Q10 200 mg/day
RESULTS  

All 14 patients took part in a resistance training program 3 days per week for 12 weeks.  All 14 patients, those taking Q10 supplements and those taking a placebo, gained significantly in muscle strength, muscle endurance and quality of life. Taking the Q10 supplement did not confer any statistically significant strength and endurance benefits.

Patients taking the Q10 supplements did record increases in the six-minute walk tests, which might possibly suggest an association between Q10 intake and muscular endurance.
 

 

 

Researcher Pedro José Tauler Riera
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears, Spain
PUBLICATION CITATION Tauler, P., Ferrer, M. D., Sureda, A., Pujol, P., Drobnic, F., Tur, J. A., & Pons, A. (2008). Supplementation with an antioxidant cocktail containing Coenzyme Q prevents plasma oxidative damage induced by soccer. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 104(5), 777-785.
TYPE OF STUDY 3-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 19 voluntary male pre-professional soccer players
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg/day and Bio-Antioxidant
RESULTS  

After 3 months of supplementation, which resulted in higher plasma levels of ascorbate and Coenzyme Q10 as compared to the placebo group levels, the subjects took part in a 60-minute soccer match. Following the match, the researchers found that the Q10 and antioxidant supplementation had influenced plasma oxidative stress markers positively.  

The levels of oxidative stress markers were lower in the supplemented group than in the placebo group following the match. The use of Q10 and antioxidant diet supplementation was seen to prevent plasma oxidative damage, but it did not influence the neutrophil response to the physical exertion of the soccer match.
 

 

 

Researcher Tuomas Westermarck
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Rinnekoti Research Center, Espoo, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Westermarck, T, Sauka, M., Selga, G., Skesters, A., & Abdulla, M., & Atroshi, F.  (2008). Effects of cocktail antioxidant supplementation on oxidative stress in AIDS. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 24(1), S55-S56.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 24 Latvian male volunteers, HIV-infected outpatients, aged 35 years plus/minus 3 years and 10 uninfected control males similar in age to the HIV-infected volunteers
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg per day and selenium 100 micrograms per day for 6 weeks
RESULTS  

All patients in the study had low serum selenium (defined as a serum level ≤ 85 µg/l). Selenium deficiency correlates positively with the progression and mortality of HIV infections. Selenium is necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system.  It seems to be a key nutrient in the inhibition of HIV infection to the development of AIDS.

In this study, Q10 supplementation appeared to increase the serum selenium concentrations. Serum selenium levels increased following Q10 supplementation.
(Professor Urban Alehagen, Linköping University, Sweden, has written in the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 2015, about the important interrelationship between Coenzyme Q10 and selenium. He thinks that selenium deficiencies can inhibit the cells from getting optimal concentrations of Coenzyme Q10 and that adequate concentrations of Q10 must be available for the cells to benefit from optimal selenium function.)
 

 

 

Researcher Janko Žmitek
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION National Institute of Chemistry, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
PUBLICATION CITATION Zmitek, J., Smidovnik, A., Fir, M., Prosek, M., Zmitek, K., Walczak, J., & Pravst, I. (2008). Relative bioavailability of two forms of a novel water-soluble coenzyme Q10. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 52(4), 281-287.
TYPE OF STUDY Randomized three-period crossover clinical trial of two forms of a new water-soluble formulation compared to Bio-Quinone soft-gel capsules containing the Q10 in soybean oil
SAMPLE SIZE 14 healthy non-smoking male volunteers aged 30–52 years with a body mass index between 20 and 25
DOSAGE Q10 60 mg single dose treatments (liquid, powder, and Bio-Quinone soft-gel formulations)
RESULTS  

The Q10 plasma concentration curves for all three formulations were similar showing a peak concentration about 4 – 5 hours after ingestion.

 

 

Researcher A. Lukmann
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION University of Tartu, Estonia
PUBLICATION CITATION Lukmann, A., Ojamaa, M., Veraksitch, A., Vihalemm, T., Zilmer, K., Zilmer, M. & Maaroos, J. (2007). The effects of Coenzyme Q10 in early rehabilitation after acute coronary syndrome. Kobe, Japan: The 5th Conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association: Program & Abstracts.
TYPE OF STUDY 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 58 acute coronary syndrome patients (31 patients received Bio-Quinone Q10; 27 patients received placebo)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100/200 mg per day (1/7 weeks)
RESULTS  

The administration of Bio-Quinone Q10 to acute coronary syndrome patients early in their rehabilitation was associated with a significant increase in most of the indices of cardiorespiratory reserve and functional capacity.

There was a significant improvement in aerobic capacity in the Q10 group as compared to the placebo control group.
 

 

 

Researcher Christian Sindberg
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Research Department, Pharma Nord, Vejle, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Sindberg, C. D., Littarru, G. P., Moesgaard,S., & Storm-Henningsen, P. L. (2007).  Bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10 formulated with palm oil is equivalent with a similar soy oil formulation.  Kobe, Japan: The 5th Conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association: Poster.
TYPE OF STUDY 8-week randomized, double-blind, cross-over study
SAMPLE SIZE 12 volunteers
DOSAGE Two groups receiving Bio-Quinone Q10 preparations containing 100 mg Q10 and either 400 mg soy oil or 400 mg palm oil respectively each day for two periods of three weeks, with a two-week washout period in between
RESULTS  

The statistical analysis was done using a paired t test.
There was no statistically significant variation in the bio-availability between the soy and palm oil formulations of the Q10.

No adverse effects of taking either preparation were observed.
 

 

 

Researcher Ram B. Singh
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Moradabad, India
PUBLICATION CITATION Singh, R. B., Niaz, M. A., Kumar, A., Sindberg, C. D., Moesgaard, S., & Littarru, G. P. (2005). Effect on absorption and oxidative stress of different oral Coenzyme Q10 dosages and intake strategy in healthy men. Biofactors (Oxford, England), 25(1-4), 219-224.
TYPE OF STUDY 20-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial     
SAMPLE SIZE 60 healthy men, aged 18-55 years
DOSAGE Various dosages and dose strategies of coenzyme Q10 soft oil capsules (Myoqinon 100 mg) or crystalline 100 mg Q10 powder capsules or placebo
RESULTS  

Patient compliance (checked by capsule counting) was above 90%. The side effects of taking Coenzyme Q10 supplements were negligible.  Supplementation increased the patients’ serum Q10 levels significantly 3 - 10 fold.  

The Coenzyme Q10 dissolved in oil was absorbed more effectively than the same amount of crystal powder Q10 in raising serum Q10 levels.  A divided dose strategy – 100 mg twice a day – gave a better serum Q10 response than a single daily dose of 200 mg.

Supplementation with 200 mg of Coenzyme Q10 for 20 days resulted in significantly reduced levels of malondialdehyde, a biological marker for oxidative stress. The Indian patients had generally lower baseline serum Q10 levels, possibly because of their vegetarian diets.
 

 

 

Researcher J. Soongswang
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
PUBLICATION CITATION Soongswang, J., Sangtawesin, C., Durongpisitkul, K., Laohaprasitiporn, D., Nana, A., Punlee, K., & Kangkagate, C. (2005). The effect of coenzyme Q10 on idiopathic chronic dilated cardiomyopathy in children. Pediatric Cardiology, 26(4), 361-366.
TYPE OF STUDY 9-month open-label prospective study
SAMPLE SIZE 15 patients diagnosed with idiopathic chronic dilated cardiomyopathy with a median age of 4.4 years (range, 0.6-16.3).
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 3.1 mg/kg/day for 9 months as a supplement to a fixed amount of conventional anti-failure drugs
RESULTS  

Patients receiving Q10 supplementation for 9 months did not show significant improvement in such parameters as weight, growth rate, cardio-thoracic ratio (CT ratio is an indirect measure of heart size), heart rate, or left ventricle ejection fraction.  However, 4 of the 15 patients receiving the Q10 adjunctive treatment did improve one NYHA functional class, and one patient improved two NYHA functional classes.

The researchers concluded that Q10 supplementation may be a good non-invasive manner to improve NYHA functional class, admission, and ventricular depolarization, but, in the present study, it did not seem to help overall cardiac function.
 

 

 

Researcher Paul E. Hart
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, England
PUBLICATION CITATION Hart, P. E., Lodi, R., Rajagopalan, B., Bradley, J. L., Crilley, J. G., Turner, C., &  Cooper, J. M. (2005). Antioxidant treatment of patients with Friedreich ataxia: four-year follow-up. Archives of Neurology, 62(4), 621-626.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label pilot study over 47 months
SAMPLE SIZE 77 patients with clinically and genetically defined Friedreich’s ataxia
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 400 mg/day (2 times 100 mg twice a day) and Vitamin E 2100 international units/day (2 times 525 international units twice a day)
RESULTS  

The researchers observed significant improvement in cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics throughout the 47 months of therapy. Echocardiographic data revealed significantly increased fractional shortening (a measure of the pumping function of the heart) at the both the 35-month and the 47-month time points.

The researchers concluded that Q10 and Vitamin E resulted in a sustained improvement in mitochondrial energy synthesis that was associated with a slowing of the progression of certain clinical features of the disease and with a significant improvement in cardiac function. (See Cooper 2008 for the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving Q10 supplementation of Friedreich’s ataxia patients.)
 

 

 

Researcher K. F. Hoenjet
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Urology, University Hospital of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
PUBLICATION CITATION Hoenjet, K. F., Dagnelie, P. C., Delaere, K. J., Wijckmans, N. G., Zambon, J. V., & Oosterhof, G. N. (2005). Effect of a nutritional supplement containing vitamin E, selenium, vitamin c and coenzyme Q10 on serum PSA in patients with hormonally untreated carcinoma of the prostate: a randomised placebo-controlled study. European Urology, 47(4), 433-439.
TYPE OF STUDY 21-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 80 patients with hormonally untreated carcinoma of the prostate and rising serum PSA levels
DOSAGE Q10 200 mg per day (2 times 100 mg)
RESULTS  

The serum Q10 level increased from 1.42 mg/L (1.13 – 1.77mg/L) before treatment to 2.63 mg/L (2.15 – 3.11 mg/L) following treatment.

In the treatment group, supplementation raised the serum levels of Q10, vitamin E, and selenium significantly over the 21-week study period.

The researchers did not observe any significant differences between the treatment group and placebo group in the serum levels of PSA, testosterone, di-hydrotestosterone, luteinizing hormone, or sex hormone binding globulin.
 

 

 

Researcher Giancarlo Balercia
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy
PUBLICATION CITATION Balercia, G., Mosca, F., Mantero, F., Boscaro, M., Mancini, A., Ricciardo-Lamonica, G., & Littarru, G. (2004). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: an open, uncontrolled pilot study. Fertility and Sterility, 81(1), 93-98.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month open, uncontrolled pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 22 patients (mean age, 31 years; range, 25–39 years) with idiopathic asthenozoospermia (reduced sperm motility)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg/day (100 mg twice daily for 6 months)
RESULTS  

The researchers’ analysis confirmed a significant increase in sperm cell motility as well. Supplementation with Q10 should be considered as a treatment option in cases of asthenozoospermia.

 

 

Researcher Eva Rabing Christensen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Infectious Diseases, Skejby Sygehus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
PUBLICATION CITATION Rabing Christensen, E., Stegger, M., Jensen-Fangel, S., Laursen, A. L., & Ostergaard, L. (2004). Mitochondrial DNA levels in fat and blood cells from patients with lipodystrophy or peripheral neuropathy and the effect of 90 days of high-dose coenzyme Q treatment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 39(9), 1371-1379.
TYPE OF STUDY 3-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
SAMPLE SIZE 25 HIV-infected patients and 10 healthy controls
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg (2 times 100 mg daily, at breakfast and at dinner)
RESULTS  

The Coenzyme Q10 therapy significantly improved the general condition and well-being of the asymptomatic HIV-infected patients and caused a reversible increase in peripheral neuropathy pain (P=.048). At the same time, the Q10 supplementation seemed to aggravate pain in patients with peripheral neuropathy.

 

 

Researcher Cestimir Zita
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Medical Faculty Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic
PUBLICATION CITATION Zita, C., Overvad, K., Mortensen, S. A., Sindberg, C. D., Moesgaard, S., & Hunter, D. A. (2003). Serum coenzyme Q10 concentrations in healthy men supplemented with 30 mg or 100 mg coenzyme Q10 for two months in a randomised controlled study. Biofactors (Oxford, England), 18(1-4), 185-193.
TYPE OF STUDY Two-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 99 men with a median baseline serum Q10 level of 1.26 mg/liter (10%, 90% fractiles: 0.82, 1.83)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 30 mg or 100 mg once per day for two months
RESULTS  

From author abstract: Supplementation with 30 mg or 100 mg Q10 resulted in median increases in serum Q10 concentration of 0.55 mg/l and 1.36 mg/l, respectively, compared with a median decrease of 0.23 mg/l with placebo.

The changes in the Q10 groups were significantly different from those in the placebo group, and the increase in the 100 mg Q10 group was significantly greater than that in the 30 mg Q10 group.

The change in serum Q10 concentration in the Q10 groups did not depend on baseline serum Q10 concentration, age, or body weight.
 

 

 

Researcher Huda Elshershari
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hacettepe University Children s Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
PUBLICATION CITATION Elshershari, H., Ozer, S., Ozkutlu, S., & Ozme, S. (2003). Potential usefulness of Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in children. International Journal of Cardiology, 88(1), 101-102.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label study lasting a mean period of 8 months plus/minus 6 months
SAMPLE SIZE 6 children ranging in age from 2 months to 11 years, each child) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and a clinical picture of congestive heart failure
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 in a dosage of 10 mg/kg per day in divided 2 or 3 daily doses
RESULTS  

The researchers continued the conventional therapy of digitalis, diuretics, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors during the period of the Bio-Quinone Q10 supplementation.

In five of the six cases, there was significant increase in ejection fraction (more blood pumped from the heart with each heartbeat) and significant increase in fractional shortening (the increase indicating better heart muscle contractions).

In the case of the sixth child, there was no observed improvement in myocardial function, but there was an improvement from NYHA class III to class II.
Q10 supplementation is seen to be potentially useful in the treatment of children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (a disease of the heart muscle of unknown cause).
 

 

 

Researcher Martin W. I. M. Horstink
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands
PUBLICATION CITATION Horstink, M. M., & van Engelen, B. G. (2003). The effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in Parkinson disease could be symptomatic. Archives of Neurology, 60(8), 1170-1172.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month open-label pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 12 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, ranging in age from 56 to 67 years and all without signs of dementia
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 1000 mg per day (500 mg twice daily) for three months and then Bio-Quinone Q10 1500 mg per day (500 mg three times daily) for three months
RESULTS  

Most variables did not show improvement with Q10 treatment, but the sum score used in the study did show an improvement in motor performance as a result of the increase to 1500 mg of Q10 per day.  However, clinical effects in the patients were minor.  

The 1000 mg/day treatment with Bio-Quinone Q10 did produce higher plasma Q10 levels than did treatment with a different Q10 preparation used in the trial reported in Shults, C. W., Oakes, D., Kieburtz, K., Beal, M. F., Haas, R., Plumb, S., & ... Lew, M. (2002). Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Archives of Neurology, 59(10), 1541-1550.
 

 

 

Researcher V. Z. Lankin
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Cardiology Research Complex, Miasnikov's Institute of Clinical Cardiology, Moscow, Russia
PUBLICATION CITATION Lankin, V. Z., Tikhaze, A. K., Kukharchuk, V. V., Konovalova, G. G., Pisarenko, O. I., Kaminnyi, A. I., & ... Belenkov, Y. N. (2003). Antioxidants decrease the intensification of low density lipoprotein in vivo peroxidation during therapy with statins. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 249(1-2), 129-140.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE First study: 20 patients (49 years old +/- 2.5 years) with chronic coronary heart disease who were taking pravastatin
Second study: 32 patients (53 years old +/- 5 years) with chronic coronary heart disease who were taking cerivastatin
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 60 mg per day
RESULTS  

Six months of therapy with 60 mg of Q10 daily together with the conventional treatment with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin led to a significant decrease in the lipoperoxide level in patients’ LDL lipoproteins.

The researchers concluded that Q10 administered in the form of ubiquinone may be effective in the prevention of atherogenic oxidative damage of LDL during statin therapy.

The findings in this study indicate that the long-term use of statins suppresses Coenzyme Q10 bio-synthesis in heart muscle cells and impairs the supply of energy to the heart.
 

 
 
Researcher Hilde Grindvik Nielsen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Center for Clinical Research, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
PUBLICATION CITATION Nielsen, H. G., Saetre, L., Skjønsberg, O. H., & Lyberg, T. (2003). Antioxidant supplementation and leucocyte expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endurance-trained athletes. Copenhagen, Denmark: International Society for Exercise and Immunology Symposium.
TYPE OF STUDY 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study
SAMPLE SIZE 12 male athletes with a mean age of 27 years and 4 female athletes with a mean age of 24 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg and Bio-Antioxidant (with 400 mg vitamin C and 180 mg vitamin E), both taken as one dose daily
RESULTS  

4 weeks of antioxidant supplementation was not associated with any significant differences in the leukocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the well-trained endurance athletes.

One possible explanation might be that the sample size in this study was small, and the intervention period was short.  There was perhaps insufficient time for the total plasma antioxidant status to improve.

 

 

Researcher Jytte Engelsen, Jørn Dalsgaard Nielsen & Kaj Flemming Winther Hansen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Amtssygehuset i Gentofte, (County Hospital in Gentofte), Hellerup, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION

Engelsen, J., Nielsen, J. D., & Winther, K. (2002). Effect of coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in stable, long-term warfarin treated outpatients. A randomised, double blind, placebo-crossover trial. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 87(6), 1075-1076.

Also reported in Ugeskrift for Læger 2003; 165(18):1868-71.

TYPE OF STUDY Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial
SAMPLE SIZE 24 stable, long-term warfarin-treated outpatients
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg per day and Bio-Biloba 100 mg Ginkgo biloba extract per day each given in random order over treatment periods of four weeks with each period followed by a two week wash out period
RESULTS  

The researchers found a reduced response to warfarin by patients taking the Q10 supplement and an increased response to warfarin by the patients taking Gingko biloba extract.

The patients’ INR (international normalized ratio) was stable during the entire treatment period.  The researchers concluded that Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba do not influence the clinical effect of warfarin.
 

 

 

Researcher Robert Eric Lister
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Phylax Ltd, Beaconsfield, UK
PUBLICATION CITATION Lister, R. E. (2002). An open pilot study to evaluate the potential benefits of coenzyme Q10 combined with Ginkgo biloba extract in fibromyalgia syndrome. The Journal of International Medical Research, 30(2), 195-199.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 25 volunteer subjects, comprising both sexes, all diagnosed with fibromyalgia
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg Q10 daily and 200 mg Ginkgo biloba extract daily for 84 days
RESULTS  

68 per cent of the patients completing the treatment indicated at the end of the study that they would like to continue with the treatment.

The researchers measured the patients’ quality of life at 0-, 4-, 8-, and 12-week intervals using the Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Information Project/World Organization of Family Doctors (COOP/WONCA) questionnaire.

The patients’ scores on the measure got progressively better, and the scores at the end of the study were significantly better than the scores had been at the start of the study.

 

 

Researcher S. J. Hodges
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Institute of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, UCL, London, UK
PUBLICATION CITATION Hodges, S. J., Gill, K., Walsh, T., Lunn, R., & Rawlinson, A. (2002). Human gingival crevicular fluid levels of Coenzyme Q10.  London, UK: Third conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association. 77-78.
TYPE OF STUDY Open label pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 9 patients (6 female, 3 male), mean age of 41 years, each patient with one healthy and one diseased periodontal site compared with 15 healthy volunteers
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 30 mg, 60 mg, and 120 mg single dose
RESULTS  

The primary focus of the study was on the efficacy of Q10 toothpaste in delivering Q10 to gingival crevicular fluid.

The administration of 120 mg of Bio-Quinone Q10 as a single dose to a 55-year-old volunteer did result in detection of Q10 in the gingival crevicular fluid. The administration of smaller doses did not increase gingival crevicular fluid Q10 levels to levels of detection.
 

 

 

Researcher J. Soongswang
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
PUBLICATION CITATION Soongswang, J. et al. (2002). The effect of coenzyme Q10 on idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in children: A preliminary report.  London, UK: Third Conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association. Poster.
TYPE OF STUDY 9-month open-label prospective study
SAMPLE SIZE 13 patients (10 female, 3 male) diagnosed with idiopathic chronic dilated cardiomyopathy with a median age of 4.4 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 2.8 mg/kg/day for 9 months as a supplement to a conventional drug treatment
RESULTS  

Used in addition to conventional anti-failure drugs, Q10 supplements improved NYHA functional class, admission rate, and ventricular depolarization rate in children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

 

 

Researcher M. Turunen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Biochemistry/Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
PUBLICATION CITATION Turunen, M., Wehlin, L., Sjöberg, M., Lundahl, J., Dallner, G., Brismar, K., & Sindelar, P. J. (2002).  beta2-Integrin and lipid modifications indicate a non-antioxidant mechanism for the anti-atherogenic effect of dietary coenzyme Q10. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 296(2), 255-260.
TYPE OF STUDY 10-week open-label study
SAMPLE SIZE 10 healthy volunteers, 5 males and 5 females (52–68 years), none of them smokers, none of them on any other medications or dietary supplements
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg for 10 weeks
RESULTS  

Supplementation with 200 mg Q10 daily increased the levels of Q10 in plasma by 100 percent in the female volunteers and by 150 percent the male volunteers.

Moreover, the alpha-tocopherol content in mononuclear and poly-nuclear cells increased continuously even though the volunteers were not taking a vitamin E supplement during the course of the study.

The researchers interpreted the increase in alpha-tocopherol levels as evidence that Q10 increases vitamin E levels in human white blood cells and regenerates alpha-tocopherol radicals and protects them from destruction. Q10 supplementation in this study significantly decreased the extent of lipid modifications that are known to be a prerequisite for the development of atherosclerotic lesions.
The study data suggest that Q10 supplementation inhibits the movement of phagocytic white blood cells to atherosclerotic lesions and helps to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis and does so by means of lipid modification rather than by conventional antioxidant functions.
 

 

 

Researcher Raffaele Lodi
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, UK
PUBLICATION CITATION Lodi, R., Hart, P. E., Rajagopalan, B., Taylor, D. J., Crilley, J. G., Bradley, J. L., & Cooper, J. M. (2001). Antioxidant treatment improves in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in patients with Friedreich's ataxia. Annals of Neurology, 49(5), 590-596.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 10 Friedreich’s ataxia patients (5 males) with a mean age of 28 years compared with 10 healthy volunteers for the calf muscle and compared with 10 different healthy volunteers for the cardiac muscle
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 400 mg/day and Vitamin E 2,100 international units/day
RESULTS  

Treatment with Q10 and vitamin E for 6 months improved cellular bioenergetics significantly in Friedreich’s ataxia patients in cardiac muscle and in skeletal muscle.

The treatment raised the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) score in 6 of the 10 patients and narrowly failed to reach statistical significance following the 6 months of therapy.
 

 

 

Researcher V. Hougaard Sunesen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Sunesen, V. H., Weber, C., & Hølmer, G. (2001). Lipophilic antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipoprotein classes: distribution and interaction. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55(2), 115-123.
TYPE OF STUDY Balanced three-period crossover study
SAMPLE SIZE 18 apparently healthy, free-living, non-smoking volunteers (9 women and 9 men) with a mean age of 26 years plus/minus 3 years, all university students
DOSAGE Three supplementation periods of 10 days:
•    Bio-Quinone 100 mg/day
•    Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 350 mg/day
•    Concentrated fish oil 2 g/day
RESULTS  

Fasting  venous  blood  samples  were  collected  twice  before  the  first  period  and then after each period.  Plasma and isolated lipoproteins were analyzed for concentrations of Coenzyme Q10, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, alpha and gamma-tocopherol, and fatty acids.

Supplementation with Bio-Quinone Q10 significantly raised plasma Q10 levels from a mean level of 1.08 milligrams per liter to 2.44 milligrams per liter.  Q10 increases occurred in all lipoprotein classes.  The Q10 was primarily concentrated in the low-density lipoprotein.

 

 

Researcher Meena Khatta
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
PUBLICATION CITATION Khatta, M., Alexander, B. S., Krichten, C. M., Fisher, M. L., Freudenberger, R., Robinson, S. W., & Gottlieb, S. S. (2000). The effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132(8), 636-640.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month randomized, double-blind, controlled trial
SAMPLE SIZE 55 patients who had congestive heart failure with New York Heart Association class III and IV symptoms (only 46 patients completed the study, 37 men and 9 women, average age: 64 years)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg/day
RESULTS  

The results reported by the researchers: Coenzyme Q10 supplementation increased the mean serum Q10 levels from 0.95 +/- 0.62 mg/L to 2.2 +/- 1.2 mg/L.  However, the Q10 supplementation did not significantly change the patients’ ejection fraction, peak oxygen consumption, and exercise duration.
Probable explanation for the results: Figure 2 on page 638 of this study shows that, of the 22 patients who were assigned to the Coenzyme Q10 treatment group, one patient showed a decline in Coenzyme Q10 concentration, nine did not increase their CoQ10 levels beyond 1.0 mg/L, five more did not increase their CoQ10 levels above 1.5 mg/L, and two patients pushed their CoQ10 levels close to 2.0 mg/L. Only five patients achieved CoQ10 levels above 2 mg/L.  For such a poor showing, there must have been considerable non-compliance in the study. Fully 77% (17 of 22) of the patients assigned to the Coenzyme Q10 treatment group did not raise their serum CoQ10 concentrations sufficiently high to affect heart function in a positive manner. In this study, figure 2 shows that the use of the mean to report increases in serum CoQ10 levels can be misleading.
 

 

 

Researcher Jari Kaikkonen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Kaikkonen, J., Nyyssönen, K., Tomasi, A., Iannone, A., Tuomainen, T. P., Porkkala-Sarataho, E., & Salonen, J. T. (2000). Antioxidative efficacy of parallel and combined supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and d-alpha-tocopherol in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical study. Free Radical Research, 33(3), 329-340.
TYPE OF STUDY Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 40 patients with mild hypercholesterolemia undergoing statin treatment
DOSAGE Four groups tested for three months
1) Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg daily … 2) Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) 700 mg daily
3) Both Bio-Quinone Q10 and Vitamin E daily … 4) Placebo daily
RESULTS  

The researchers observed the following effects of supplementation:
•    The combination of Q10 and Vitamin E led to a reduced increase in plasma Q10 levels compared to Q10 supplementation alone.
•    Vitamin E supplementation alone increased significantly the oxidation resistance of isolated LDL. Q10 alone did not. Nor did the combination of Q10 and Vitamin E supplementation increase the oxidation resistance of isolated LDL.
•    Q10 supplementation alone increased significantly the proportion of ubiquinol of total Q10. Vitamin E alone decreased significantly the proportion of ubiquinol of total Q10.
•    Neither Q10 nor Vitamin E affected the redox status of plasma ascorbic acid.
 

 

 

Researcher Fabrizio Mosca
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Institute of Biochemistry, University of Ancona Medical School, Ancona, Italy
PUBLICATION CITATION Mosca, F., Balercia, G., Mantero, F., Arnaldi, G., & Littarru, G.P. (2000).  Effect of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on some biochemical parameters and on sperm motility in a group of asthenozoospermic patients.  Frankfurt, Germany: Second Conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association, 157.
TYPE OF STUDY An open-label uncontrolled study
SAMPLE SIZE 7 asthenozoospermic patients (patients with reduced sperm motility)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg/day
RESULTS  

The seminal plasma Q10 level rose significantly in all patients.  The mean baseline value was 0.42 milligrams per liter.  The post-supplementation value was 1.27 milligrams per liter.  

With Q10 supplementation, the ratio of sperm straight velocity to sperm curvilinear velocity increased.
 

 

 

Researcher Branko Zorn
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Andrology Centre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Slajmerjeva, Ljubljana, Slovenia
PUBLICATION CITATION Zorn, B., Virant-Klun, I., Osredkar, J., & Krstic, N.  (2000). The effects of a double-blind randomized placebo controlled cross-over trial using coenzyme Q10 (Bio-Quinone Q10) treatment on sperm quality and sperm in vitro fertilizing potential in infertile men. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Second conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association. 126-127.
TYPE OF STUDY Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial
SAMPLE SIZE 60 infertile men
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 (ubiquinol form) 100 mg once a day
RESULTS  

Treatment with Q10 in the form of ubiquinol was not associated with significant changes in commonly measured sperm parameters.  However, the treatment with Q10 – ubiquinol form was observed to decrease the percentage of sperm with abnormal DNA.  The researchers related this effect to the antioxidant function of Coenzyme Q10.

 

 

Researcher J. G. Eriksson
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Helsinki, Finland.
PUBLICATION CITATION Eriksson, J. G., Forsén, T. J., Mortensen, S. A., & Rohde, M. (1999). The effect of coenzyme Q10 administration on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biofactors (Oxford, England), 9(2-4), 315-318.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 23 type-2 diabetic patients
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone 100 mg Q10 twice a day
RESULTS  

Supplementation with 100 mg of Bio-Quinone Q10 twice daily caused serum Q10 levels to rise to levels more than three times the baseline levels.

There was no observed correlation observed between serum Q10 levels and metabolic control.  Q10 supplementation caused no significant changes in metabolic parameters.

The patients tolerated the Q10 treatment well.  It did not interfere with glycemic control.

Consequently, it should be safe for type 2 diabetics to receive Q10 supplements as adjuvant treatment for heart disease.
 

 

 

Researcher J. E. Henriksen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION The Diabetes Research Centre, Odense University Hospital, Denmark.
PUBLICATION CITATION Henriksen, J. E., Andersen, C. B., Hother-Nielsen, O., Vaag, A., Mortensen, S. A., & Beck-Nielsen, H. (1999). Impact of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) treatment on glycemic control, insulin requirement and well-being in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association, 16(4), 312-318.
TYPE OF STUDY 3-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 34 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone 100 mg Q10 daily
RESULTS  

At the beginning of the trial, there were no differences between the Q10 and the placebo groups with respect to age, body mass index, HbA1c levels (glycated hemoglobin levels = a measure of plasma glucose concentration), or daily insulin dose.

During the course of the study, the serum Q10 levels increased in the Q10 supplementation group but not in the placebo group. The supplementation with Q10 did not cause any differences between the two groups in HbA1c levels, mean daily blood glucose levels, mean insulin dose needed, hypoglycemic episodes per week, cholesterol levels, or patient well-being

The Q10 supplementation did not improve glycemic control, and it did not reduce insulin requirement.  Conclusion: Q10 can be taken by patients with Type 1 diabetes without any obvious risk of hypoglycemia.
 

 

 

Researcher Henrik Munkholm
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Cardiology, Aalborg Hospital, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Munkholm, H., Hansen, H. H., & Rasmussen, K. (1999). Coenzyme Q10 treatment in serious heart failure. Biofactors (Oxford, England), 9(2-4), 285-289.
TYPE OF STUDY 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation
SAMPLE SIZE 22 patients with mean left ventricular ejection fraction 26%, with mean left ventricular internal diameter 71 mm, and with NYHA class II or III
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg twice daily
RESULTS  

Q10 supplementation was associated with significant improvement of the following outcomes:
•    improved stroke index at rest and at work
•    decreased pulmonary artery pressure at rest
•    decreased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at rest and at work
 
Q10 supplementation is associated positively with improved left ventricular performance. The researchers concluded that patients with congestive heart failure could benefit from adjunctive treatment with Q10.
 

 

 

Researcher S. Hodges
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION University of Sheffield, UK
PUBLICATION CITATION Hodges, S., Hertz, N., Lockwood, K., & Lister, R. (1999).  CoQ10: could it have a role in cancer management? Biofactors (Oxford, England), 9(2-4), 365-370.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 6 cancer patients
DOSAGE A combination of nutritional antioxidants: Bio-Quinone Q10 90 mg per day,
2850 mg Vitamin C, 2500 i.u. Vitamin E, 32.5 i.u. beta-carotene, 387 micrograms selenium, 1.2 g gamma-linolenic acid, and 3.5 g omega-3 fatty acids
RESULTS  

In some of the patients, the Q10 and antioxidant therapy, used in addition to conventional therapy, was seen to reduce levels of TNF-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor, a cell-signaling protein produced by activated macrophages and involved in systemic inflammation).  

The researchers speculated that Q10 therapy might help in the inhibition of tumor-associated cytokines (proteins important in cell signaling).
 

 

 

Researcher N. Denny
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
PUBLICATION CITATION Denny, N., Chapple, I., & Matthews, J. (1999).  Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coenzyme Q10: a preliminary study.  Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: International Association of Dental Research, Annual Meeting, Conference Paper Abstract, 193.
TYPE OF STUDY 28-day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 10 non-smoking healthy volunteers, not using any vitamin supplements or medication, all diagnosed with mild to moderate gingival inflammation
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 90 mg/day
RESULTS  

Q10 treatment for 28 days reduced gingival bleeding indices significantly.  Placebo treatment for 28 days did not.  The data from the study indicate that Q10 supplementation may reduce gingival inflammation without necessarily raising Q10 concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid significantly.

 

 

Researcher J. P. Watson
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Centre for Liver Research, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
PUBLICATION CITATION Watson, J. P., Jones, D. E., James, O. F., Cann, P. A., & Bramble, M. G. (1999). Case report: oral antioxidant therapy for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis: a pilot study. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 14(10), 1034-1040.
TYPE OF STUDY 3-month
SAMPLE SIZE 24 patients diagnosed with primary biliary cirrhosis
DOSAGE Group 1: compound antioxidant vitamin preparation Bio-Antox four tablets daily
Group 2: Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg together with Bio-Antox
RESULTS  

Q10 supplementation coupled with antioxidant supplementation resulted in significant improvement in both pruritus (itching) and fatigue. The same improvement was not seen in the group supplemented with antioxidants alone.

In the Q10 + antioxidants group, 9 of 13 patients reported less fatigue, and 10 of the 13 patients improved in at least one aspect of their Fisk Fatigue Severity Score. The combination of Q10 supplementation and antioxidant supplementation seems to relieve the symptoms of itching and fatigue in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

 

 

Researcher D. Mari
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Clinical Oncology, University of Ancona Medical School, Ancona, Italy
PUBLICATION CITATION Mari, D., Alleva, R., Tomasetti, M., Littarru, G.P. & Folkers, K. (1998). Reduction of chemotoxicity and enhancement of antioxidant capacity of plasma in cancer patients treated with conventional therapy plus CoQ10. Boston, Massachusetts: First Conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association. 132-133.
TYPE OF STUDY 120-day randomized, open-label pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 58 cancer patients (42 male patients and 16 female patients) diagnosed with lung cancer (24), colon cancer (25), or breast cancer (9)
DOSAGE Group A: Standard chemotherapy for the specific cancer (30 patients)
Group B: Bio-Quinone Q10 300 mg/day in addition to the standard chemotherapy (28 patients)
RESULTS  

Supplementation with Q10 increased plasma Q10 levels from 0.8 +/- 0.2 milligrams per liter to 5.5 +/- 2.5 milligrams per liter.  Q10 supplementation restored low baseline total antioxidant capacity values in the cancer patients to normal levels.  

Moreover, there were 3 early deaths and 3 cases of IV grade toxicity in the group receiving the chemotherapy without Q10 supplementation.  There were no early deaths and no cases of IV grade toxicity in the Q10 supplementation group.
 

 

 

Researcher Louise Tholle
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Research Institute for Human Nutrition, Royal College of Veterinary and Agricultural Science, Hillerød, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Tholle L., Toubro S., Astrup A., & Toubro S.  (1998). Effect of Q10 on resting energy expenditure in males.  International Journal of Obesity, 23,3 (Suppl), S158.
TYPE OF STUDY Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study
SAMPLE SIZE 11 healthy male subjects with ages ranging from 52 to 70 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg daily
RESULTS  

Supplementation with 100 mg of Bio-Quinone Q10 for one week increased plasma Q10 concentration by 79 % from 1.17 micromol/liter to 2.10 micromol/liter.

After one week of Q10 treatment, 8 of 11 subjects were able to name the correct treatment (P< 0.08) because of a better feeling of well-being and because of a reduction in the need for sleep.
 

 

 

Researcher R. Aejmelaeus
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Depattment of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical
School, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Aejmelaeus, R., Metsä-Ketelä, T., Laippala, P., Alho, H. & Solakvi, T. (1997).   Ubiquinol-10 and total peroxyl radical trapping capacity of LDL lipoproteins during aging: the effects of Q-10 supplementation. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 18, s113-s120.
TYPE OF STUDY Comparative study
SAMPLE SIZE 70 healthy volunteers, aged 28-77 years, 32 male and 38 female, non-smokers and non-users of medicines and dietary supplements
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg (administered to 17 volunteers)
RESULTS  

The researchers used a luminescent method to measure the peroxyl radical trapping capacity of human LDL.  Previous research had shown that, in the Finnish male population, the peroxyl radical trapping capacity declines with age.

This study’s results show that LDL antioxidant defenses decrease with age in the Finnish male population and that the decline is most significant in males under 50 years. In older age groups, the LDL antioxidant defense values remain stable at a low level. Supplementation with Q10 doubled the number of ubiquinol-containing LDL molecules and could play a role in inhibiting LDL oxidation. A highly significant increase in LDL-ubiquinol levels was detected in the 17 volunteers who took the Coenzyme Q10 100 mg supplement daily.
 

 

 

Researcher Aby Lewin
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University
Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
PUBLICATION CITATION Lewin, A. & Lavon, H. (1997).  The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on sperm motility and function.  Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 18 (Supplement), s213-s219.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 17 patients with low fertilization rates after ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 60 mg/day, for a mean of 103 days
RESULTS  

The researchers did not observe any significant change in most sperm parameters, but they did see a significant improvement in fertilization rates after the Q10 treatment.

The researchers concluded that treatment with Q10 can result in improvement in sperm functions in selective patients.
 

 

 

Researcher T. Ylikoski
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Vuokatti Sports Testcenter, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Ylikoski, T., Piirainen, J., Hanninen, O., & Penttinen, J. (1997). The effect of coenzyme Q10 on the exercise performance of cross-country skiers. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 18 SupplS283-S290.
TYPE OF STUDY Double-blind cross-over study
SAMPLE SIZE 25 Finnish top-level cross-country skiers
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone 90 mg of Q10 per day
RESULTS  

Q10 supplementation led to significantly improved aerobic and anaerobic threshold and maximal oxygen consumption in the elite cross-country skiers.  

Moreover, 94% of the Finnish skiers enrolled in the study indicated the Q10 supplement had helped to improve their performance and their recovery time. Only 33% of the participants felt the same during the placebo periods.
 

 

 

Researcher V.L. Serebruany
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Heart Associates Research and Education Foundation, Baltimore, MD, USA
PUBLICATION CITATION Serebruany, V. L., Gurbel, P. A., Ordoñez, J. V., Herzog, W. R., Rohde, M., Mortensen, S. A., & Folkers, K. (1997). Could coenzyme Q10 affect hemostasis by inhibiting platelet vitronectin (CD51/CD61) receptor? Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 18 SupplS189-S194.
TYPE OF STUDY 20-day open-label study
SAMPLE SIZE 15 indivduals
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg twice daily
RESULTS  

The researchers had hypothesized that supplementation with Q10 might affect hemostasis (the process of stopping bleeding, the first step of wound healing) by inhibiting the formation of platelets and might, therefore, play a role in the diminishing of the incidence of thrombosis in platelets.

With the Q10 treatment, the researchers found a 20.2% decrease in plasma fibronectin (a protein component of blood plasma), a 20.6% decrease in thromboxane B2 (a lipid metabolite of the blood clotting process), a 23.2% decrease in prostacyclin (an inhibitor of platelet activation), and a 17.9% decrease in endothelin-1 (a peptide that constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure).

This study provides direct evidence of a link between Q10 supplementation, platelet activation, and hemostasis.  
 

 

 

Researcher Jari Kaikkonen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Kaikkonen, J., Nyyssönen, K., Porkkala-Sarataho, E., Poulsen, H. E., Metsä-Ketelä, T., Hayn, M., & ... Salonen, J. T. (1997). Effect of oral coenzyme Q10 supplementation on the oxidation resistance of human VLDL+LDL fraction: absorption and antioxidative properties of oil and granule-based preparations. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 22(7), 1195-1202.
TYPE OF STUDY 2-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
SAMPLE SIZE 60 healthy men, smokers, mean age 46 +/- 7 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone 90 mg/day
RESULTS  

The oil-based Bio-Quinone Q10 increased the plasma Q10 levels by 178% and increased the level of Q10 in the VLDL+LDL fraction by 160%.  However, the Q10 supplementation was not seen to increase the oxidation resistance of the VLDL+LDL fraction, when the extent of copper-induced VLDL+LDL oxidation and haemin+H(2)O(2)-induced VLDL+LDL oxidation was assessed.  There was no significant improvement in the levels of plasma malondialdehyde (a bio-marker for oxidative damage).

 

 

Researcher M. Mizuno
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Mizuno, M., Quistorff, B., Theorell, H., Theorell, M., & Chance, B. (1997). Effects of oral supplementation of coenzyme Q10 on 31P-NMR detected skeletal muscle energy metabolism in middle-aged post-polio subjects and normal volunteers. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 18 SupplS291-S298.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-month open-label controlled pilot study
SAMPLE SIZE 7 middle-aged subjects, 3 post-polio patients and 4 healthy individuals
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg/day
RESULTS  

Supplementation with Q10 resulted in a progressive decrease in the resting Pi/PCr ratio (ratio of the phosphorous metabolites, inorganic phosphorous to phosphocreatine) in the post-polio patients and in less pronounced changes in the control subjects.  Post-polio patients also registered a decrease in muscle pH, following Q10 supplementation.  No such decrease was seen in the healthy subjects.  Q10 supplementation did result in a decreased half-time of recovery for PCr (phosphocreatine) in both groups.  Based on the results of this study, Q10 supplementation seems to affect muscle energy metabolism in post-polio subjects more than in healthy control subjects.

 

 

Researcher E. Strijks
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Neurology, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands
PUBLICATION CITATION Strijks, E., Kremer, H. P., & Horstink, M. W. (1997). Q10 therapy in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 18 SupplS237-S240.
TYPE OF STUDY 3-month open-label trial
SAMPLE SIZE 10 patients with Parkinson disease
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 200 mg per day
RESULTS  

There was no significant improvement in motor performance.

 

 

Researcher Christine Weber
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Weber, C., & Bysted, A. H. (1997). Intestinal absorption of Coenzyme Q10 administered in a meal or as capsules to healthy subjects. Nutrition Research, 17, 6, 941-945.
TYPE OF STUDY Randomized cross-over study
SAMPLE SIZE 9 healthy non-smoking male volunteers with an average age of 22 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 30 mg
RESULTS  

To investigate the bioavailability of dietary Coenzyme Q10 in humans, the researchers administered single doses of Q10 (30 mg/person) either as a meal of cooked pork heart or as 30 mg Q10 capsules. The increase in serum Q10 levels reached a maximum peak at six hours after the ingestion of either the meal or the capsules. The pork heart meal raised serum Q10 levels significantly from 0.97 mg/L to 1.44 mg/L.  The supplementation with Q10 capsules raised the serum Ql0 concentrations significantly from a baseline level of 0.88 mg/L to 1.19 mg/L. There was no statistically significant difference between the Q10 absorption from the meal and from the capsules.

 

 

Researcher Chris Alford
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
PUBLICATION CITATION Alford, C., Service, J., & Hogan, J. (1996).  The effects of food supplements (ubiquinone and selenium) on mood and compliance.  Cambridge, UK: British Association for Psychopharmacology. Abstract.
TYPE OF STUDY 5-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study
SAMPLE SIZE Four groups of 10 subjects each (age range: 18-23 years)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 60 mg/day and Bio-Selenium 100 micrograms/day
RESULTS  

Supplementation with ubiquinone and supplementation with selenium were both associated with better compliance with the study regimen and with improved energy levels and improved mood states. The results were measured using the Visual Analogue Scales scores (for energy) and UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist scores.

 

 

Researcher H. Alho
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Alho, H., Lönnrot, K., & Aejmelaeus, R.  (1996). Ubiquinone and total peroxyl radical trapping capacity of LDL lipoproteins during aging: the effects of Q10 supplementation. 9th International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q10, 9, 20.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label study
SAMPLE SIZE 86 healthy subjects aged 25 to 81 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg per day
RESULTS  

The researchers studied the total peroxyl-radical trapping capacity (TRAP-LDL) in plasma LDL.  In female subjects, the TRAP-LDL trapping capacity tended to decrease with age.  In males, above the age of 25, a decrease in TRAP-LDL trapping capacity was significantly associated with increasing age.  The decreases in TRAP-LDL trapping capacity were associated with decreasing levels of ubiquinol, the reduced form of Coenzyme Q10, in plasma.  Supplementation with Q10 raised, significantly, the levels of ubiquinol in plasma, and ubiquinol is the form of Coenzyme Q10 that is a potent antioxidant.

 

 

Researcher K. Lönnrot
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Lönnrot, K., Metsä-Ketelä, T., Molnár, G., Ahonen, J. P., Latvala, M., Peltola, J., & ... Alho, H. (1996). The effect of ascorbate and ubiquinone supplementation on plasma and CSF total antioxidant capacity. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 21(2), 211-217.
TYPE OF STUDY 4-week open-label study
SAMPLE SIZE 5 healthy volunteers
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q-10 100 mg/day the first 2 weeks and 300 mg/day the next 2 weeks
Ascorbic acid 500 mg/day the first 2 weeks and 1,000 mg/day the next 2 weeks
RESULTS  

With supplementation, the plasma Q10 levels rose from a mean baseline value of 0.57 mg/L to a mean value of 2.13 mg/L over the course of the four-week study.
The concentration of Q10 in cerebrospinal fluid did not increase.

 

 

Researcher M. Mizuno
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Mizuno, M., Nielsen, A. N., Ratkevicius, A., Mohr, T., Rohde, M., Mortensen, S. A., & Quistorff B.  (1996). CoQ10 supplementation does not affect maximal oxygen uptake, 31 P-NMR detected metabolism, or muscle fatigue in endurance athletes. 9th International. Symposium on. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q10, 9, 80-81.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-week open-label study
SAMPLE SIZE 7 healthy endurance athletes
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg per day
RESULTS  

Supplementation with 100 mg of Q10 per day raised serum Q10 levels from a mean of 0.92 micrograms per milliliter to 1.93 micrograms per milliliter.
The researchers did not observe significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, 31P-NMR detected metabolism, or muscle fatigue in endurance athletes.
 

 

 

Researcher Magnus Nylander
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Clinical Research Centre at Novum, Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
PUBLICATION CITATION Nylander, M., Weiner, J., & Nordlund, M. (1996).  A double-blind clinical dose-response study on effects of CoQ10 on gingival bleeding/periodontal disease in ordinary people. Helsinki, Finland: 7th International Symposium on Trends in Biomedicine in Finland, Suppl 8, 1-7.
TYPE OF STUDY Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study
SAMPLE SIZE 60 ordinary non-smoking Swedish adults randomized to three groups:
•    17 subjects receiving a daily dose of 30 mg for 10 days
•    19 subjects receiving a daily dose of 100 mg
•    24 subjects receiving placebo capsules
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 30 mg/day or 100 mg/day
RESULTS  

The researchers recorded gingival bleeding at the start and at the end of the study. They observed the greatest decrease in gingival bleeding in the group that was received 100 mg of Q10 daily and the least decrease in gingival bleeding in the placebo group. They found a statistically significant difference between the group that received 100 mg of Q10 daily and the other two groups (30 mg Ql0 and placebo) in the extent of improvement in gingival bleeding points.

 

 

Researcher J. T. Salonen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Salonen, J. T., Kaikkonen, J., Nyyssönen, K.,, Maijala, L., Porkkala-Sarataho, E., Salonen, R., & Korpela, H. (1996). Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation resistance: a randomized placebo controlled double blind study in marathon runners.  Ancona, Italy: 9th International Symposium on Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q10. 23.
TYPE OF STUDY 3-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 37 moderately trained healthy marathon runners
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 90 mg/day
RESULTS  

Supplementation with Q10 significantly increased plasma Q10 levels as compared to placebo.  Q10 supplementation also significantly increased measured oxidation resistance (measuring copper-induced VLDL and LDL oxidation lag time).  There was no significant difference in the extent of muscle damage (measured by serum creatine kinase activity) or muscle metabolites (measured by plasma lactates).

 

 

Researcher D. P.  Taggart
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Departments of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Biochemistry, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, England
PUBLICATION CITATION Taggart, D. P., Jenkins, M., Hooper, J., Hadjinikolas, L., Kemp, M., Hue, D., & Bennett, G. (1996). Effects of short-term supplementation with coenzyme Q10 on myocardial protection during cardiac operations. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 61(3), 829-833.
TYPE OF STUDY Short-term randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study
SAMPLE SIZE 20 patients with well-preserved left ventricular function scheduled to undergo elective coronary revascularization
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 600 mg in divided doses 12 hours before operation
RESULTS  

Following the patients’ heart surgeries, the researchers monitored the levels of myoglobin (a protein released more rapidly by an infarcted heart), creatine kinase MD fraction (a bio-marker for heart muscle injury), and cardiac troponin T (an indicator of heart muscle injury) for 1, 6, 24, 72, and 120 hours following the operations. Patients in both groups registered significant post-operative increases in myoglobin, kinase MB fraction, and cardiac troponin T levels.  Short-term Q10 supplementation did not make a significant difference in the levels of these bio-markers.
The supplementation with Q10 was very short-term, just 12 hours prior to surgery. It may be that a longer period of Q10 supplementation with Q10 would yield different results following heart surgery.  
Rosenfeldt et al (2010) supplemented heart surgery patients for two months prior to surgery and one month after surgery and achieved significantly improved health benefits and lowered hospital costs.

 

 

Researcher Renata Alleva
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy
PUBLICATION CITATION Alleva, R., Tomasetti, M., Battino, M., Curatola, G., Littarru, G. P., & Folkers, K. (1995). The roles of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E on the peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein sub-fractions.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(20), 9388-9391.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label study of the relationship between the Coenzyme Q10 levels and levels of free radical hydro-peroxide in three sub-fractions of low-density lipoproteins
SAMPLE SIZE 10 healthy male adult volunteers with a mean age of 26 years
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg per day for 30 days
RESULTS  

The researchers knew that elevated levels of lipoprotein sub-fraction LDL-3 are frequently seen in patients with coronary artery disease or at risk for coronary artery disease. They hypothesized that the higher susceptibility to oxidation of LDL-3 might be responsible for the increased risk of coronary artery disease.
The results of this study demonstrate that LDL-3 generally contains lower levels of the antioxidants Q10 and vitamin E.  Q10 supplementation significantly raised the Q10 levels in all three sub-fractions of low-density lipoproteins.  The LDL-3 sub-fraction showed the highest increase as a result of supplementation, and the increase in LDL-3 Q10 levels was associated with a significant decrease in hydro-peroxide level.  The researchers concluded that Q10 levels in LDL affect the susceptibility of the LDL lipoproteins to oxidation by free radicals.
 

 

 

Researcher R. Laaksonen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
PUBLICATION CITATION Laaksonen, R., Fogelholm, M., Himberg, J. J., Laakso, J., & Salorinne, Y. (1995). Ubiquinone supplementation and exercise capacity in trained young and older men. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 72(1-2), 95-100.
TYPE OF STUDY 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study
SAMPLE SIZE 19 physically fit men, 11 young men (aged 22-38 years) and 8 older men (aged 60-74 years)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 120 mg/day
RESULTS  

Q10 supplementation increased serum ubiquinone levels significantly in both age groups. The serum Q10 concentrations were higher in the older subjects during the entire study, and the older athletes responded better than the younger athletes to the Q10 treatment.  The Q10 supplementation did not improve the athletes’ aerobic endurance capacity. It may be that a greater dosage is needed in healthy, physically fit people.  A different study (Kamikawa et al., 1985) has shown that Q10 supplementation does improve maximal exercise capacity in patients with angina pectoris.

 

 

Researcher Karl Folkers
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Texas at Austin, USA
PUBLICATION CITATION Folkers, K., Moesgaard, S., & Morita, M. (1994). A one-year bioavailability study of coenzyme Q10 with 3 months withdrawal period. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 15 Suppls281-s285.
TYPE OF STUDY One-year bioavailability study with nine months of supplementation and three months of withdrawal
SAMPLE SIZE 21 healthy individuals
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 30 mg three times a day
RESULTS  

The researchers took blood samples and tested Q10 levels at baseline, after three and nine months of supplementation, and three months after withdrawal.

The average Q10 levels rose from approximately one milligram per liter prior to supplementation to approximately two milligrams per liter after three and nine months of supplementation.  The Q10 levels returned to the pretreatment level after withdrawal.
The rise in the Q10 levels was statistically significant (P < 0.001, t-test).
 

 

 

Researcher Knud Lockwood
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Private Outpatient Clinic, Copenhagen, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Lockwood, K., Moesgaard, S., & Folkers, K. (1994). Partial and complete regression of breast cancer in patients in relation to dosage of coenzyme Q10. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 199(3), 1504-1508.
TYPE OF STUDY 18-month Adjuvant Nutritional Intervention in Cancer protocol
SAMPLE SIZE 32 patients with breast cancer, aged 32-81 years and classified high risk because of tumor spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit
DOSAGE A combination of nutritional antioxidants: Bio-Quinone Q10 90 mg per day,
2850 mg Vitamin C, 2500 i.u. Vitamin E, 32.5 i.u. beta-carotene, 387 micrograms selenium, 1.2 g gamma-linolenic acid, and 3.5 g omega-3 fatty acids
RESULTS  

The researchers made the following observations during the study period:

•    No patients died even though the expected number to die was four.
•    No patients showed any sign of additional distant metastases.
•    The patients’ quality of life was improved.
•    There was no weight loss, and there was reduced use of pain killers.
•    Six patients showed apparent partial remission.
 

 

 

Researcher Bodo Kuklinski
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Klinik für Innere Medizin (Department of Internal Medicine), Rostock, Germany
PUBLICATION CITATION Kuklinski, B., Weissenbacher, E., & Fähnrich, A. (1994). Coenzyme Q10 and antioxidants in acute myocardial infarction. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 15 Suppls143-s147.
TYPE OF STUDY Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
SAMPLE SIZE 61 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction and with symptoms of less than six hours’ duration (32 patients in the treatment group, 29 patients in the control group)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg and Bio-Selenium 100 micrograms for a period of one year
RESULTS  

None of the patients in the Q10/selenium group showed a prolongation of the frequency corrected QT-interval (the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle) whereas 40% of the patients in the placebo group showed a prolongation of the QT-interval by more than 440 msec (p < 0.001).  The researchers observed no significant differences with respect to early complications. However, during the one-year follow-up period after the myocardial infarction, six patients (20%) in the placebo group died from re-infarction, but only one patient (3%) in the Q10/selenium group died, and that death was from a non-cardiac cause.

 

 

Researcher Malene Weis
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Weis, M., Mortensen, S. A., Rassing, M. R., Møller-Sonnergaard, J., Poulsen, G., & Rasmussen, S. N. (1994). Bioavailability of four oral coenzyme Q10 formulations in healthy volunteers. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 15 Suppls273-s280.
TYPE OF STUDY Four-way randomized cross-over trial
SAMPLE SIZE 10 healthy volunteers
DOSAGE Various formulations of Coenzyme Q10 100 mg
RESULTS  

The study of four different formulations of Q10 revealed the following information:
•    Suspending the Q10 raw material in oil inside a gelatin capsule resulted in the highest bioavailability.
•    There was a gender difference in the basic area under the curve and in the area under the curve following oral administration of the Q10 preparations.
•    There was a two-peak pattern in concentration-time bio-availability profile.
 

 

 

Researcher Christine Weber
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Weber, C., Sejersgård Jakobsen, T., Mortensen, S. A., Paulsen, G., & Hølmer, G. (1994). Antioxidative effect of dietary coenzyme Q10 in human blood plasma. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 64(4), 311-315.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label study
SAMPLE SIZE 22 healthy young subjects (9 men and 13 women)
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 90 mg/day
RESULTS  

One week of supplementation with 90 mg/day of Bio-Quinone Q10 increased plasma Q10 levels significantly from 0.7 +/- 0.1 micromol/l before supplementation to 1.7 +/- 0.3 micromol/l.

The level of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which formed as a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, decreased during the first two weeks of Q10 supplementation.

The researchers concluded that the decrease of TBARS and the presence of most of the orally supplemented Q10 in the reduced form in plasma seemed to indicate an anti-oxidative role for Q10 in the blood.
 

 

 

Researcher Svend Aage Mortensen
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
PUBLICATION CITATION Mortensen, S. A. (1993). Perspectives on therapy of cardiovascular diseases with coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone). The Clinical Investigator, 71(8 Suppl), S116-S123.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label study
SAMPLE SIZE 5 patients diagnosed with cardiomyopathy
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 100 mg per for a mean of 5 months
RESULTS  

Supplementation with 100 mg daily of the Bio-Quinone Q10 raised Coenzyme Q10 levels in blood from a mean level of 0.66 milligrams per liter to a mean of 1.50 milligrams per liter.  

Increasing blood and tissue levels of Q10 is important because it is known that blood and tissue levels of Q10 are significantly lower in patients with advanced heart failure (NYHA classes III and IV) as compared with patients with milder stages of heart failure (NYHA classes I and II) (Mortensen, 1993, p. S117).
 

 

 

Researcher Magnus Nylander
RESEARCHER AFFILIATION The Institution for Hygiene, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
PUBLICATION CITATION Nylander, M. (1991). Kliniska effekter på kostsupplementering med ubiquinon, coensym Q10 (Clinical effects of dietary supplementation with ubiquinone Coezyme Q10).     BIOMED, 4, 6-11.
TYPE OF STUDY Open-label preliminary study
SAMPLE SIZE 6 people with varying degree of periodontitis
DOSAGE Bio-Quinone Q10 30 mg/day and 100 mg/day for 6 – 12 weeks
RESULTS  

The results of this preliminary study indicate that supplementation with Q10 can reduce the extent of bleeding tendency and inflammation of the gingiva in individuals diagnosed with periodontitis. The dosage and the amount of time needed for the supplementation to give a therapeutic effect varied from one individual to another.

 

 

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